Bangladesh enjoys generally a sub-tropical monsoon climate. There are three distinct seasons. From November to February a cool temperature (12-28 °C) and little or no precipitation prevails. Summer continues from March to May with a little rainfall, with temperatures as high as 40 °C. The monsoon prevails from June to October having high rainfall, humidity and temperatures from 25-35 °C. The average precipitation per year varies among the regions from 1194-3454 mm.
A tropical location, lush greenery, moisture-rich loamy soil and production-friendly climate-all these make Bangladesh one of the notable growers of a vast range of fruits.
More than 60 varieties of fruits are being grown in the country. Major fruits include mango, banana, papaya, jackfruit, pineapple, guava, litchi, pummelo, lemon etc. Banana constitutes over 40 per cent of the total fruit production in the country.
Most of these fruits—perishable in nature with high nutritional value -- are available during the respective season of production. Among these fruits; mango, jackfruit, litchi, banana, papaya, pineapple, watermelon, guava, lemon, star fruit, honeydew etc. are available during the summer season between May and July.
So, it is no surprise that summer in Bangladesh is called season of fruits—specially for mango, jackfruit, lichi and jam (black berry)—the popular crowd favourites. In taste, flavour and texture, scores of most these fruits in Bangladesh are higher than similar fruits in other countries. One needs not to be an expert to feel this difference. Visitors to this country may just taste any of the fruits and judge for themselves.
There are very few industries for processing of fruits in Bangladesh . The annual requirement of fruits in the country is over 60, 00,000 metric tons. But current production is only around 15, 00,000 metric tons, leaving the country highly deficient in fruits production.
According to statistics complied few years ago production of varieties of fruits in the country is as follows: Banana- around 6,40,000 metric ton. Mango-around 1,90,000 metric tons. Pineapple- around 1, 50,000 metric tons. Jackfruit- around 2,70,000 metric tons. Papaya- around 50,000 metric tons. Melon- around 1,10,000 metric tons. Litchi- around 13,000 metric tons. Guava- around 50,000 metric tons. Ber- around 16,000 metric tons. Orange- around1,000 metric tons. Pomelo- around 15,000 metric tons. Lime&Lemon- around 13,000 metric tons. Other fruit- around 22,000 metric tons.
The country is endowed with favourable soil and climate for cultivation of many horticultural crops yet total production far less than enough. One of the reasons for low production, despite vary favourable climatic condition, is the absence of commercial cultivation of fruits. In the rural areas of the country, the farmers in addition to other food and commercial crops are also the growers of fruits.
In addition to better taste, flavour and texture, the fruits of Bangladesh have another attractive plus point—most of these are organic. Amid growing concern about use of chemical fertilizers in growing food crops, fruits and vege-
tables and its possible bad effect on the consumer, Bangladesh fruits can certainly claim to be —all natural.
List of notable fruits, their local and English names and growing seasons are as follows:
1. Aam (Mango)- May-September. 2. Kathal (Jackfruits)- April-October. 3. Lichu (Lychee/Litchee)- June-July. 4. Jam ( Berry )- May-June. 5. Kala (Banana)- All season. 6. Boroi (Berr/Jujubi)- November-February. 7.Ata (Cherimoya)- March-May. 8. Gab (Sharonfruit)-April-June.9. Amra (Golden Apple)- April-October.10. Jambura/Batabilebu (Shaddoc/Pummelo)- April-October.11. Jamrul (Rose Apple) April-October. 12. Kaggji Lebu (Lime)- All seasons. 13. Kamranga (Carambola/Star fruit)- April-October. 14. Lebu (Lemon)- April-October. 15. Safeda (Sapodila/ Sapota/Chico)- April-Octobe. 16. Kul/Boroj (Plum/Jujubi)- November-February. 17. Latka (Longan)- April-October. 18. Amloki(Embica)- July-October. 19. Pani phal (Water chestnut)- April-October. 20. Peara (Gauva)- All season. 21. Jalpai (Olive)- November-February. 22. Sharifa (Atemoya)- August-December. 23. Tal (Mangoesteen/Plam)- April-October. 24. Bel (Wood Apple). 25. Kad Bel.